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Determination and Analysis Of Forging Process Plan
The purpose of economic analysis of forging processing is mainly to explore the best technical solution and pursue the greatest economic effect. Any production process must formulate the process, determine the process parameters and process equipment, and discuss the economic effects.
The principle of determining a forging process is creating the most material wealth with the least labor consumption. The optimization of the process is to minimize total materials, equipment, energy, and labor consumption. It also ensures the quality and quantity of the product.
For the forging process, it offers better high dimensional accuracy of forgings, organization, and the performance meets requirements. The process also offers low raw material consumption, small equipment investment, simple tools, and low energy consumption. Labor intensity is also low, and there is less environmental pollution.
The effect of technology and economy is carried out by the comparative method. When comparing process schemes, there may be more than two schemes. In order to make the analysis conclusions correct, exhaustive methods should be used to list possible schemes or alternative schemes.
For this reason, it is necessary to carry out forging process analysis, explore a variety of processes and plans, prepare conditions for technical and economic analysis, and select the best process plan. The task of general process analysis can be summarized as follows:
According to the functional characteristics, material, shape, dimensional accuracy, quality requirements, and production batch of parts, the existing or available equipment, devices, tools, energy, inspection methods, management level, and personnel under the condition of quality, various technological schemes available for use are proposed.
During process analysis, the following questions must be considered and answered:
- Whether it can satisfy the function of the part
- Whether it can meet the technical conditions and quality standards of the drawings
- Is the structure of the forging is reasonable, and whether there is any excess dressing?
- Whether the machining allowance can be reduced
- Whether the deformation force or deformation function is reduced
- Is the metal streamline meeting the requirements?
- Whether there are any omissions in the process of ensuring quality
- Have the working procedures and steps have been minimized?
- Whether the material is fully utilized. Is it possible to forge with other parts, multiple products in one mold, or multiple products in one blank?
- Have you considered advanced technologies such as cold forging, precision forging, rolling, partial die forging, segmented die forging, combined die forging, and forging and welding?
Process analysis takes specific parts as the object, comprehensively uses metal pressure processing principles, forging technology, and metal science. It also takes into consideration heat treatment, forging equipment and its automation, and other disciplines and factory production practices. From the analysis of the functions and technical requirements of the parts, the manpower is explored.
Possible deformation methods and design forging structure, determine appropriate machining allowances, tolerances, and draw forging drawings. According to the shape and size of the forging and the deformation method, calculate the force required for deformation. You also need to select the main forging equipment.
The determine the heating temperature according to the forging material and the deformation method and select the heating method and heating equipment. Select the blanking equipment according to the type of forging equipment, the deformation method, and the size of the blank. According to the quality requirements of the forgings, the process route is determined. The equipment for trimming, correction, forging, heat treatment, processing, inspection, and flaw detection is also selected.
Determine the production tact and productivity according to the production batch, and then calculate the number of equipment. According to equipment performance characteristics and productivity, calculate various consumption data, such as consumption of materials, power, blanking, auxiliary materials, and molds.
According to the selected process, consider the production organization, equipment characteristics, and determine the plant area required for production. You can also determine the number of production workers, auxiliary workers, technical and management personnel. Then analyze the advantages and disadvantages of various processes. Key factors to consider when analyzing include working conditions, environmental protection, and their technical and labor skills needs.
According to the results of the step-by-step analysis, several alternative process schemes can be obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of each scheme will be revealed during the analysis process. In terms of technical performance and technical data, it lays the necessary foundation for further economic analysis.
What needs to be pointed out is that before deriving an alternative process plan, screen it and technically eliminate all unreliable processes. The so-called unreliable process includes the following aspects – unable to complete the forming of the forging, and the dimensional accuracy cannot meet the requirements of the drawing. The metal streamline is unreasonable or cannot meet the requirements of the part for the metal streamline. The process cannot also meet the strength, rigidity, and hardness of the part.
Other aspects of an unreliable process include extra performance requirements. Being unable to meet the quality tolerance and dimensional tolerance requirements for parts use or subsequent processing. It is also unable to obtain the required equipment or molds and the necessary power, fuel, raw materials, and auxiliary materials. It can also include aspects of serious pollution or damage to the operators’ health and unable to prevent or not get the necessary preventive measures, etc.
After the above-mentioned comparison process, we have a comprehensive understanding of the processing methods of specific forgings. If the analysis is based on the existing knowledge and experience, the proposed technological schemes will be limited to the existing production methods. On this basis, further thinking and new ideas are proposed in view of the inherent shortcomings of various existing solutions.
Under the circumstance that deformation methods, reduction of procedures, energy-saving, and material saving are possible, forgings are improved or changed, and new process solutions are conceived. The new idea must go through the above-mentioned procedures to calculate various technical data to form a complete process plan.
Process analysis is a system engineering problem. Although it is still an analogy and inference based on experience so far, it is a method characterized by the personal mental work of the craftsman. Therefore, the person engaged in this work is required to be familiar with the existing production methods and master the characteristics and application of various technological schemes.
Scope and restrictions can correctly calculate various technical parameters, understand the current situation, trends, and development trends of forging products, and can make inferences and predictions based on actual conditions.